1747-1753- French expeditions into the previously claimed Ohio Valley discovered that the local natives were trading with and favoring the British in the east over French traders in the New France(Quebec) and along the Mississippi River(Louisiana). They warned the local Indian nations to stop trading with the British or face dire consequences in the near future. When their warnings were ignored, and British trading companies in Virginia and Pennsylvania began creating settlements in the Ohio Valley, the French sent the colonial militia to kill the native leader and build forts along the local rivers. They did, and they forced British settlers and traders out of the valley.
1754- The Ohio Company of Virginia sent the young Major George Washington (21) of the Virginia Militia to construct a fort of their own in the Ohio Valley and reclaim the land and protect British investments in Ohio. After the fort was constructed, Major Washington warned the local French leader that the land belonged to the British and they needed to leave. His warning was ignored. On May 28, Washington and his men ambushed a French scouting party, without orders from his British higher-ups. George Washington’s attack, at the Battle of Jumonville Glen, is considered the beginning of the French & Indian War (Seven Years War).
1755-1762- War between British colonist in the south and French colonist in the north, along with French colonist in Acadia against British colonist in Nova Scotia, consumed the northeast portion of the North American continent. The campaigns were slow and harsh and the war was very unpopular, both in America and in Europe. On May 18, 1756, Britain formally declared war on France, and war broke out in Europe and parts of Africa. By 1760, fighting in North America had stopped, but it continued in Europe.
1762- On February 10, 1763, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the French and Indian War, with Great Britain as the victor. The French relinquished Canada and its claims to Ohio to the British, and Louisiana to Spain, who aided them against the British. The French colonists were allowed to keep their French language, culture, and practice of Catholicism, in exchange for not rebelling against their new British rulers (occupiers). Many French settlers migrated to New Orleans (Louisiana) or Saint-Domingue (Haiti), in order to escape British rule. To counter this mass migration, the British declared the Ohio Valley as being a territory of Canada, instead of the southern colonies. British colonists in the southern colonies were outraged by this, and increasing taxes on exports and occupation by British militia spurred on harsh feelings toward the motherland.
1775-1783- In response to British taxes and military occupation, the southern British colonies declared themselves independent from Great Britain, and took on the name “United States of America”. At first, British forces crushed the rebellion. But then, with their first victory, the USA was able to convince France, their former enemy, to alley with them against Great Britain. On December 26, 1778, French settlers in Quebec rebelled against their British occupiers, calling out to newly arrived French forces in the USA to aid them in their fight for freedom. Now fighting in both Canada and America, also against the French, British forces were defeated in Yorktown, Virginia. The United States of America was formally recognized as an independent state. The British ceded their lands in the Appalachian Mountains to the USA and the Ohio Valley to the new government in Quebec. The French settlers were meet with a hard decision. They were invited by the Americans to become the 14th state of the USA, but turned it down. They were then invited by the French Crown to become a North American province of France once again, but turned it down as well in favor of independence. On June 2, 1785, they created the Republic of Quebec, allied to the USA and France.
1787- Border disputes between Virginia and Pennsylvania broke out into civil war in the young USA. The weak central government was unable to stop the fighting and other wars soon broke out across the nation (Virginia vs. Pennsylvania, Maryland, & Delaware ; New York vs. (newly independent) Republic of Vermont & New Jersey ; Massachusetts vs. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, & Connecticut ; North & South Carolina vs. Georgia). By 1800, the nation had been thoroughly balkanized with 5 new nations left standing (Conf. of the Carolinas, Rep. of Virginia, Rep. of Pennsylvania, Free State of New York, and the Union of Massachusetts). The Republic of Vermont was annexed to the Rep. of Quebec to avoid defeat and annexation by New York.
1789- The French peasants revolted against the French crown in the French Revolution. Quebecois supported the rebellion, and sent militia to aid in the overthrow of the monarchy. When the revolution was finished, and Napoleon Bonaparte took control of France, good relations between the two nations increased.
1800- France was ceded Louisiana back from Spain, and the fur and sugar cane trade from New Orleans and Saint-Domingue was revived, until the “Haitian” slaves laboring there rebelled against the local plantation owners. French naval forces were unable to completely retake the island and the slaves won their independence.
1803- With no base to organize Caribbean trade from the Mississippi River in Louisiana, the French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, no longer had a use for French Louisiana, especially during his war in Europe. He began looking for potential buyers. He would not sell it to any of the American states, who he did not trust would/could pay for it, and he refused to sell it to Spain or Great Britain. That left one obvious choice. He ceded Louisiana to the Republic of Quebec and invited them to deal with Haiti themselves.
-French settlers in Louisiana refused to fully accept Quebecois control unless two demands were meet. 1). The name of the country must change to encompass all citizens.- The name was changed to the United States of Franco-America, in honor of their fallen alley, and to reinforced united French heritage.
2). They must make an attempt to retake Haiti by peaceful means in order to preserve French heritage in the Americas and increase Caribbean trade.- Peaceful negotiations ended with the annexation of Haiti and the abolishment of slavery in Franco-America.
-Today, the French culture and language is still strong in North America